For example, Western culture includes countries in Northern America, such as Canada and the United States, or Australasia, such as Australia and New Zealand, whose language and demographic ethnicity majorities are of European descent without indigenous influence. Football(also known as soccer) remains hugely popular in Europe, but has grown from its origins to be known as the world game. Many parts of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire are considered Western today but were considered Eastern in the past. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. [172] And 73% in Oceania are self-identify as Christian, and 76% in South Africa is Christian. [64][65][66] However, due to the division in Western Christianity caused by the Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment, religious influence—especially the temporal power of the Pope—began to wane.[67][68]. The modern game of golf originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. Westernization definition, the process of adopting, or of influencing others to adopt, ideas and practices characteristic of Europe and North America:Once preferred by most women in India, the sari became less popular due to westernization, with young women now preferring other attire such as skirts or pants. [88] Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals, plants[89] and fire. The Age of Discovery faded into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, during which cultural and intellectual forces in European society emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. [27][28] The Catholic Church established a hospital system in Medieval Europe that vastly improved upon the Roman valetudinaria[55] and Greek healing temples. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (Chapters 9, 10, 11, 13, 25 and 26) and three times (Chapters 4, 8 and 19) in its sequel, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, accessed 8 December 2014. p. 1: "Western civilization owes far more to Catholic Church than most people—Catholic included—often realize. In the Roman world, one could speak of three main directions: North (Celtic tribal states and Parthians), the East (lux ex oriente), and finally the South (Quid novi ex Africa? Ancient Greece is considered the birthplace of many elements of Western culture, including the development of a democratic system of government and major advances in philosophy, science and mathematics. What is Western Culture: The universe of values, customs, practices, traditions, religious beliefs, economic system and political-social organization representative of Western Europe and Europe is known as Western culture from the west, either because they originated there, or because they were assumed as their own. »Its Definition and Meaning [2019], Definition of protusion - What it is, Meaning and Concept, Meaning of Convergent (What is, Concept and Definition), Meaning of Nutriologist (What is it, Concept and Definition), Meaning of greenhouse effect (What is it, Concept and Definition), Definition of polifacetic - What is it, Meaning and Concept. [citation needed] European culture developed with a complex range of philosophy, medieval scholasticism, mysticism and Christian and secular humanism. Throughout the Western world there are increasing numbers of people who seek to revive the indigenous religions of their European ancestors; such groups include Germanic, Roman, Hellenic, Celtic, Slavic, and polytheistic reconstructionist movements. The soap opera, a popular culture dramatic form, originated in the United States first on radio in the 1930s, then a couple of decades later on television. Western culture continued to develop with the Christianisation of European society during the Middle Ages, the reforms triggered by the Renaissance of the 12th century and 13th century under the influence of the Islamic world via Al-Andalus and Sicily (including the transfer of technology from the East, and Latin translations of Arabic texts on science and philosophy),[23][24][25] and the Italian Renaissance as Greek scholars fleeing the fall of the Byzantine Empire after the Muslim conquest of Constantinople brought classical traditions and philosophy. ), the latter conquered after the Punic Wars. Publications include Encyclopédie (1751–72) that was edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe. But people i… [42] For example, Kwame Anthony Appiah points out that many of the fundamental influences on Western culture, such as those of Greek philosophy are also shared by the Islamic world to a certain extent. Culture is a term that refers to a large and diverse set of mostly intangible aspects of social life. The first digital broadcast satellite (DBS) system began transmitting in US in 1975. Learn more. [77] These transitions began in Great Britain, and spread to Western Europe and North America within a few decades.[78]. "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century,". The Greeks contrasted themselves with both their Eastern neighbours (such as the Trojans in Iliad) as well as their Western neighbours (who they considered barbarians). If they are angry, they might express. For about five hundred years, the Roman Empire maintained the Greek East and consolidated a Latin West, but an East-West division remained, reflected in many cultural norms of the two areas, including language. Many musical instruments developed in the West have come to see widespread use all over the world; among them are the violin, piano, pipe organ, saxophone, trombone, clarinet, accordion, and the theremin. New York, Messner (1955), harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLandes1969 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHunter1985 (, Charles Murray, Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. In the following century, this process was further enhanced by an exodus of Greek Christian priests and scholars to Italian cities such as Venice after the end of the Byzantine Empire with the fall of Constantinople. Western societies are pole apart from eastern in field of science and technology. The history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football. In turn, most European instruments have roots in earlier Eastern instruments that were adopted from the medieval Islamic world. [144][145], In business, economics, and finance, double entry bookkeeping, credit cards, and the charge card were all first used in the West. The "Greek" East was generally wealthier and more advanced than the "Latin" West[citation needed]. The West went through a series of great cultural and social changes between 1945 and 1980. In Western dance, music, plays and other arts, the performers are only very infrequently masked. Geographically, the "West" of today would include Europe (especially the states that collectively form the European Union, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Switzerland) together with extra-European territories belonging to the English-speaking world, the Hispanidad, the Lusosphere; and the Francophonie in the wider context. The most important Hellenistic centre of learning was Ptolemaic Egypt, which attracted Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Phoenician and even Indian scholars. This included the emergence of modern science, during which developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. Western culture is characterized by a host of artistic, philosophic, literary and legal themes and traditions. Elizabethan theatre, with such luminaries as William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Ben Jonson, is considered one of the most formative and important eras for modern drama. However, per another survey by Pew Research Center from 2011, Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western world where 70–84% are Christians,[96] According to this survey, 76% of Europeans described themselves as Christians,[96][169][170] and about 86% of the Americas population identified themselves as Christians,[171] (90% in Latin America and 77% in North America). Orthodox Christian Christianity and the Nicene Creed served as a unifying force in Christian parts of Europe, and in some respects replaced or competed with the secular authorities. Secularism (separating religion from politics and science) increased. A number of popular modern sports were devised or codified in Britain during the 19th Century and obtained global prominence—these include ping pong, modern tennis, association football, netball and rugby. During the Great Divergence, a term coined by Samuel Huntington[69] the Western world overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization of the time, eclipsing Qing China, Mughal India, Tokugawa Japan, and the Ottoman Empire. During the Reformation and Enlightenment, the ideas of civil rights, equality before the law, procedural justice, and democracy as the ideal form of society began to be institutionalized as principles forming the basis of modern Western culture, particularly in Protestant regions. The Romans exhibited a passion for blood sports, such as the infamous Gladiatorial battles that pitted contestants against one another in a fight to the death. The polka, the square dance, the flamenco, and the Irish step dance are very well known Western forms of folk dance. Eventually, the empire became increasingly split into a Western and Eastern part, reviving old ideas of a contrast between an advanced East, and a rugged West. It applies to countries whose history is strongly marked by Western European immigration or settlement, and is not restricted to Western Europe. [80][81][82] The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. European art pays deep tribute to human suffering.[97]. The names of western society, western civilization, European civilization and Christian civilization with the same meaning are also used. [102] The ballroom dance is an important Western variety of dance for the elite. Similarly, sports such as cricket, rugby, and netball were exported around the world, particularly among countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, thus India and Australia are among the strongest cricketing states, while victory in the Rugby World Cup has been shared among New Zealand, Australia, England, and South Africa. Culture definition is - the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; also : the characteristic features of everyday existence (such as diversions or a way of life) shared by people in a place or time. Restoration of a fresco from an Ancient Roman villa bedroom, circa 50-40 BC, dimensions of the room: 265.4 x 334 x 583.9 cm, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, circa 1503–1506, perhaps continuing until circa 1517, oil on poplar panel, 77 cm × 53 cm, Louvre, (Paris), Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez, 1656, oil on canvas, 318 cm × 276 cm, El Prado (Madrid), Dance at Le moulin de la Galette, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1876, oil on canvas, height: 131 cm, Musée d'Orsay (Paris), Photo of the interior of the apartment of Eugène Atget, taken in 1910 in Paris. It challenged the authority of institutions that were deeply rooted in society, such as the Catholic Church; there was much talk of ways to reform society with toleration, science and skepticism. The concept of Western culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. See more. [97] Some cultural and artistic modalities are characteristically Western in origin and form. The double-blind study and evidence-based medicine are critical scientific techniques widely used in the West for medical purposes. The term also applies beyond Europe to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence. The United States also developed unique variations of English sports. These states also experienced major transformations in the form of the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution that defined their economic and cultural … Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a Frenchman, instigated the modern revival of the Olympic movement. Western religions believe in the superiority of human beings over other animals and here too people can become better if they control their sinful actions and thoughts ‘Though Western in origin, it is not a Western good but a human good.’ ‘It is a nice change of pace from what have normally seen from Western Europeans during the last year and a half.’ ‘Every Western democracy is signed up to the 1951 United Nations convention on refugees.’ Jousting and hunting were popular sports in the European Middle Ages, and the aristocratic classes developed passions for leisure activities. Alexander's conquests led to the emergence of a Hellenistic civilization, representing a synthesis of Greek and Near-Eastern cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Christian attempts to reconcile these frameworks were responsible for the preservation of Greek philosophy. From Late Antiquity, through the Middle Ages, and onwards, while Eastern Europe was shaped by the Orthodox Church, Southern and Central Europe were increasingly stabilized by the Catholic Church which, as Roman imperial governance faded from view, was the only consistent force in Western Europe. Westernization, the adoption of the practices and culture of western Europe by societies and countries in other parts of the world, whether through compulsion or influence. Dance forms. Bullfighting spread from Spain to its American colonies, and in the 19th century to France, where it developed into a distinctive form in its own right. Since classical antiquity, sport has been an important facet of Western cultural expression. The Latin-speaking Western Roman Empire consisted of Western Europe and Northwest Africa, while the Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire (later the Byzantine Empire) consisted of the Balkans, Asia Minor, Egypt and Levant. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1989. The cultural distance between the West and Islam is narrower than Westerners think. Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. Meaning of Civic Values ​​(What are they, Concept and Definition), Definition of environmental hygiene - What it is, Meaning and Concept, What is Synoptic Table? a: steeped in or stemming from the Greco-Roman traditions Western culture b : of or relating to the noncommunist countries of Europe and America Western powers [97] Christianity laid a stress on the inward aspects of actions and on motives, notions that were foreign to the ancient world. The Baroque style, which encompassed music, art, and architecture, was particularly encouraged by the post-Reformation Catholic Church as such forms offered a means of religious expression that was stirring and emotional, intended to stimulate religious fervor.[99]. Western culture has been heavily influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions. From the time of Alexander the Great (the Hellenistic period), Greek civilization came in contact with Jewish civilization. Western culture is a term that refers to the heritage of ethical values, traditions, customs, belief systems, technologies, and artefacts that define the lifestyles and beliefs of people from the Western part of the world. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, musical, and philosophical principles which set it apart from other great civilizations. [1] These cultures had a number of similarities, such as a common emphasis on the individual, but they also embody fundamentally conflicting worldviews. Iron and steel ships, bridges and skyscrapers first appeared in the West. The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. This organic unity of Western culture is so strong that even the modern developments of extreme nationalism have been incapable of creating any real cultural and spiritual autarky. [34] Francisco de Vitoria, a disciple of Thomas Aquinas and a Catholic thinker who studied the issue regarding the human rights of colonized natives, is recognized by the United Nations as a father of international law, and now also by historians of economics and democracy as a leading light for the West's democracy and rapid economic development. Sailen Debnath, 2010, "Secularism: Western and Indian," New Delhi, India:Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, Gordon, Cyrus H., The Common Background of the Greek and Hebrew Civilizations, W. W. Norton and Company, New York 1965, "How The Irish Saved Civilisation", by Thomas Cahill, 1995, Sootin, Harry. The area that had formerly been considered the Orient ("the East") became the Near East as the interests of the European powers interfered with Meiji Japan and Qing China for the first time in the 19th century. Western culture. Christianity, including the Roman Catholic Church,[7][8][9] Protestantism[10][11] the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Oriental Orthodoxy,[12][13] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century,[14][15][16][17][18] as did Judaism. There are essentially no taboos against depicting a god, or other religious figures, in a representational fashion. [155], In the 16th century, a decrease in the preeminence of Latin in its literary use, along with the impact of economic change, the discoveries arising from trade and travel, navigation to the new world, science and arts and the development of increasingly rapid communications through print led to a rising corpus of vernacular media content in European society. Non-European groups, and Jews in particular, have been subjected to intense racism, ethnic and religious hatred, xenophobia, discrimination, and persecution in the West. Philosophers of the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, Voltaire (1694–1778), David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. [b] The term Middle East in the mid-19th century included the territory east of the Ottoman Empire, but West of China—Greater Persia and Greater India—is now used synonymously with "Near East" in most languages. At the same time, then as the printing press in the physical technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of the word also entered the historical stage. [26] Medieval Christianity is credited with creating the modern university,[27][28] the modern hospital system,[29] scientific economics,[30][31] and natural law (which would later influence the creation of international law). University professor, singer, Bachelor of Arts (Mention Cultural Promotion), with a Masters in Comparative Literature from the Central University of Venezuela, and PhD in History at the Autonomous University of Lisbon. [1], As in other areas, the Jewish diaspora and Judaism exist in the Western world. The first modern Olympic games were held at Athens in 1896. Chinese and Japanese literature contain some works that may be thought of as novels, but only the European novel is couched in terms of a personal analysis of personal dilemmas.[97]. The novel, which made its appearance in the 18th century, is an essentially European creation. The Automobile Book. Classical Greek learning was also subsumed, preserved, and elaborated in the rising Eastern world, which gradually supplanted Roman-Byzantine control as a dominant cultural-political force. Greek and Roman theatre are considered the antecedents of modern theatre, and forms such as medieval theatre, passion plays, morality plays, and commedia dell'arte are considered highly influential. [70] influenced society by publishing widely read works. [citation needed], The transistor, integrated circuit, memory chip, and computer were all first seen in the West. [96], According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 72% of the EU population. The Church in fact built Western civilization. The West invented cinema, television, the personal computer and the Internet; produced artists such as Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Bach, and Mozart; developed sports such as soccer, cricket, golf, tennis, rugby, basketball, and volleyball; and transported humans to an astronomical object for the first time with the 1969 Apollo 11 Moon Landing. Until the Age of Enlightenment,[62] Christian culture took over as the predominant force in Western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science for many years. Upon learning about enlightened views, some rulers met with intellectuals and tried to apply their reforms, such as allowing for toleration, or accepting multiple religions, in what became known as enlightened absolutism. The rediscovery of the Justinian Code in Western Europe early in the 10th century rekindled a passion for the discipline of law, which crossed many of the re-forming boundaries between East and West. The eradication of smallpox, was led by a Westerner, Donald Henderson. Life in a western country is pretty easy as they have number of resources and facilitates. Western culture is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures.[1]. During this period writers like Herodotus and Xenophon would highlight the importance of freedom in the Ancient Greek world, as opposed to the perceived slavery of the so called barbaric world.[46]. [148][149] The landing of robots on Mars (2004 and 2012) and on an asteroid (2001), the Voyager 2 explorations of the outer planets (Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989), Voyager 1's passage into interstellar space (2013), and New Horizons' flyby of Pluto (2015) were significant recent Western achievements. [174] Non-believers/Agnostics account for 16%,[173] atheists account for 7%,[173] and Muslims account for 2%.[173]. Western culture - the modern culture of western Europe and North America; "when Ghandi was asked what he thought of Western civilization he said he thought it would be a good idea" They are committed to producing the highest quality goat cheese from ther small sustainable farm on the western slope of Colorado. Much of the basis of the post-Roman cultural world had been set before the fall of the Empire, mainly through the integration and reshaping of Roman ideas through Christian thought. English migrants took antecedents of baseball to America during the colonial period. The Olympic Games revived many of the sports of Classical Antiquity—such as Greco-Roman wrestling, discus and javelin. [citation needed], In mathematics, calculus, statistics, logic, vectors, tensors and complex analysis, group theory and topology were developed by Westerners. Christianity would eventually emerge from the syncretism of Hellenic culture, Roman culture, and Second Temple Judaism, gradually spreading across the Roman Empire and eclipsing its antecedents and influences. Literacy became almost universal, encouraging the growth of books, magazines and newspapers. The phenomenon of publishing was now born. The western civilization has really colonized other parts of the world, meaning that most people are emulating the western culture. [43] Thus the Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895 occurred in the Far East while the troubles surrounding the decline of the Ottoman Empire simultaneously occurred in the Near East. Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. Vitamins, hormonal contraception, hormones, insulin, beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, along with a host of other medically proven drugs, were first utilized to treat disease in the West. Indeed, if they go beyond a certain point in this direction they prove fatal to the existence of the national culture itself, as the catastrophic development of national socialism in Germany has … [93][94], In the 20th century, Christianity declined in influence in many Western countries, mostly in the European Union where some member states have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years,[95] and also elsewhere. [124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131] The pencil, ballpoint pen, Cathode ray tube, liquid-crystal display, light-emitting diode, camera, photocopier, laser printer, ink jet printer, plasma display screen and world wide web were also invented in the West. Conclusion. The ballet is a distinctively Western form of performance dance. The music video was also developed in the West in the middle of the 20th century. [159][160] This has included pogroms, forced conversion, displacement, segregation and ghettos, ethnic cleansing, genocide, and other forms of violence and prejudice.[161][162][163]. Constantinople and the West: essays on the late Byzantine (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman churches. [150][151][152][153][154], The roots of modern-day Western mass media can be traced back to the late 15th century, when printing presses began to operate throughout wealthy European cities. [44][45] Ancient Egypt similarly had a strong influence on Western culture. [97] Tragedy, from its ritually and mythologically inspired Greek origins to modern forms where struggle and downfall are often rooted in psychological or social, rather than mythical, motives, is also widely considered a specifically European creation and can be seen as a forerunner of some aspects of both the novel and of classical opera. A modern ubiquitous architectural form that emphasizes this characteristic is the skyscraper, their modern equivalent first developed in New York and Chicago. Western culture has as its foundation the ideas and values derived from ancient Greek philosophy, Roman law, and Christianity. The sport of bullfighting is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France, and some Latin American countries. Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is the heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, artifacts and technologies of the Western World that originated in or are associated with Europe. Musical theatre was developed in the West in the 19th and 20th Centuries, from music hall, comic opera, and Vaudeville; with significant contributions from the Jewish diaspora, African-Americans, and other marginalized peoples.[103][104][105]. Stereotypical views of "the West" have been labeled Occidentalism, paralleling Orientalism—the term for the 19th-century stereotyped views of "the East". [56] These hospitals were established to cater to "particular social groups marginalized by poverty, sickness, and age," according to the historian of hospitals, Guenter Risse. Much of this set of traditions is collected in the Western canon. 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