[25] In the Miocene period, the watershed of the Rhine reached south, only to the Eifel and Westerwald hills, about 450 km (280 mi) north of the Alps. The Rhine: an eco-biography, 1815–2000. The culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres (11,854 ft) above sea level. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea. By the early Pleistocene period, the Rhine had captured most of its current Alpine watershed from the Rhône, including the Aare. The northern parts of the Untersee (Lake Zell and Gnadensee) remain virtually unaffected by the flow. This discharge distribution has been maintained since 1709 by river engineering works including the digging of the Pannerdens canal and the installation, in the 20th century, of a series of weirs on the Nederrijn. Lake Constance consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee ("upper lake"), the Untersee ("lower lake"), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein ("Lake Rhine"). Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen, showing damage before collapse during the Battle of Remagen, Rhine at Hünxe, near the border of the Netherlands. From the Eocene onward, the ongoing Alpine orogeny caused a north-south rift system to develop in this zone. 1050-1350)-language text, Articles containing Palatine German-language text, Articles needing additional references from January 2011, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. French leaders, such as Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte, tried with varying degrees of success to annex lands west of the Rhine. [note 3], The spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,[3] Three countries border the Obersee, namely Switzerland in the south, Austria in the southeast and the German states of Bavaria in the northeast and Baden-Württemberg in the north and northwest. The dominant economic sectors in the Middle Rhine area are viniculture and tourism. Are you sure you want to delete your score and checked items on this list? In 1932 the German encyclopedia Knaurs Lexikon stated the length as 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), presumably a typographical error. The last glacial ran from ~74,000 (BP = Before Present), until the end of the Pleistocene (~11,600 BP). It flows through the three valleys named Rheinwald, Schams and Domleschg-Heinzenberg. The Rhine flows through six countries - Switzerland, Principality of Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France and the Netherlands before flowing into the North Sea at Rotterdam. One of the most important cities in this region is Duisburg with the largest river port in Europe (Duisport). Near Sils the Posterior Rhine is joined by the Albula, from the east, from the Albula Pass region. It flows farther west, to rejoin the Noord into the Nieuwe Maas and to the North Sea. See how the Rhine, Main and Moselle river systems unfold to create a spellbinding display of storybook villages, Dutch windmills, German vineyards and Gothic cities. By the Pliocene period, the Rhine had captured streams down to the Vosges Mountains, including the Main and the Neckar. The rate of flow was increased and the ground water level fell significantly. It is mentioned by, most notably the straighening of the Upper Rhine planned by, The geomorphological ridge line does not necessarily coincide with the, sum of Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein discharges according to, Average over the period 1961–1990: 1,297 m, Cioc, Mark. The other third of the water flows through the Pannerdens Kanaal and redistributes in the IJssel and Nederrijn. Other rivers in the Ruhr Area, above all, the Emscher, still carry a considerable degree of pollution. It is the border between Switzerland and Liechtenstein and also the border between Germany and France. Tributaries of the Rhine River Augustus ordered his stepson Roman general Drusus to establish 50 military camps along the Rhine, starting the Germanic Wars in 12 BC. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. This was followed by embankment of the major distributaries and damming of minor distributaries, which took place in the 11–13th century AD. Geography Quiz / Blitz: Rhine River Countries Random Geography or Country Quiz Can you name the countries that the Rhine River flows through or borders? A MESSAGE FROM TAUCK ABOUT COVID-19 (UPDATED JANUARY 14, 2021) Click for details. The Rhine flows through Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and Liechtenstein. Most of the Rhine's current course was not under the ice during the last Ice Age; although, its source must still have been a glacier. The Rhine has been historically important since the days of Julius Caesar, who built a bridge over it in approximately 53 B.C. Between Emmerich and Cleves the Emmerich Rhine Bridge, the longest suspension bridge in Germany, crosses the 400-metre-wide (1,300 ft) river. Until the early 1980s, industry was a major source of water pollution. This section is nearly 86 km long, and descends from a height of 599 m to 396 m. It flows through a wide glacial Alpine valley known as the Rhine Valley (German: Rheintal). Until 1932 the generally accepted length of the Rhine was 1,230 kilometres (764 miles). Because the levees are some distance from the river, at high tide the Lower Rhine has more room for widening than the Upper Rhine. The lake is situated in Germany, Switzerland and Austria near the Alps. Many intermediate aims for the ecological revalorisation of the Rhine river stated in the “Programme for the Sustainable Development of the Rhine – Rhine 2020” have already been achieved [ 7 , 10 , 18 ]. Here, too, the river water is hardly mixed with the lake water. In particular, pollution problems in the Rhine Rive… The length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers" (Rheinkilometer), a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance (0 km) to Hoek van Holland (1036.20 km). the locus of early Celtic-Germanic cultural contact. Rhine, Main & Danube Discovery (new) ... the regal River Queen or the elegant River Empress; Lavishly appointed riverview staterooms and suites have handcrafted Savoir® Beds of England, high thread count 100% Egyptian cotton sheets and European duvets, and a menu of pillow options ; Free Internet and Wi-Fi access; Experiences. The river traverses the southern, which, in isolation, is sometimes called Rhinesee ("Lake Rhine"). The Treaty of Versailles and this particular provision, in general, caused much resentment in Germany and is often cited as helping Adolf Hitler's rise to power. During periods of lower sea levels within the various ice ages, the Rhine took a left turn, creating the Channel River, the course of which now lies below the English Channel. Much of the discharge was routed to the Rhine and its downstream extension. This meant that high tide formed a serious risk because strong tidal currents could tear huge areas of land into the sea. The Alsace on the left banks of the Upper Rhine was sold to Burgundy by Archduke Sigismund of Austria in 1469 and eventually fell to France in the Thirty Years' War. At the confluence of Aare and Rhine, the Aare at 560 m³/s carries more water on average than the Rhine at 439 m³/s, so that hydrographically speaking the Rhine is a right tributary of the Aare. The control of the Rhine from Basel to the Netherlands fell to the Germans in the Middle Ages. The southern part was different. Germany’s spectacular backdrops and breathtaking natural wonders will reveal themselves as you cruise along the alluring Moselle and Rhine rivers. [note 9] In the mouth region, it is therefore necessary to permanently remove gravel by dredging. Thereafter, canals were dug, bends were straightened and groynes were built to prevent the river's channels from migrating or silting up. Uncover the best-kept secret in river... Ship: River Queen. In the geologically recent past the main process distributing sediment across the delta has been the shifting of river channels to new locations on the floodplain (termed avulsion). What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? The last phase slightly predates the global last ice age maximum (Last Glacial Maximum). The northern section of this frontier, where the Rhine is deep and broad, remained the Roman boundary until the empire fell. [29] This has caused increased flooding and sedimentation, ending peat formation in the delta. However, there are plenty of them open to visitors. In the 9th, it formed part of the border between Middle and Western Francia, Coeval absolute sea-level rise and tectonic subsidence have strongly influenced delta evolution. Most of Luxembourg and a very small part of Belgium also drain to the Rhine via the Moselle. On the few remaining natural sections, there are still several rapids. As a meandering river, it reworked its ice-age floodplain. 750-1050)-language text, Articles containing Middle Dutch (ca. Here’s How Online Games Like Prodigy Are Revolutionizing Education. This creates three main flows, two of which change names rather often. Miltenberg, Germany. It is over 700 miles long, begins in the Swiss Alps and empties into the North Sea after flowing through the Netherlands. With an average water flow of 373 m³/s (mean summer discharge 700 m³/s) it is the largest waterfall in Europe in terms of potential energy.[17]. [26] Rapid warming and changes of vegetation, to open forest, began about 13,000 BP. The actual number of legions present at any base or in all, depended on whether a state or threat of war existed. Since the Peace of Westphalia, the Upper Rhine formed a contentious border between France and Germany. Like in the Obersee, the flow the Rhine can be traced in the Untersee. 2002: 54, Cioc, Mark. The Dutch name for Rhine is "Rijn". The Rhine-Meuse Delta, the most important natural region of the Netherlands begins near Millingen aan de Rijn, close to the Dutch-German border with the division of the Rhine into Waal and Nederrijn. The IJssel branch carries one ninth of the water flow of the Rhine north into the IJsselmeer (a former bay), while the Nederrijn carries approximately two-ninths of the flow west along a route parallel to the Waal. Three of our colleagues cycled along EuroVelo 15 - Rhine Cycle Route this summer, offering us the opportunity to continue our … Seattle: University of Washington Press. And the best place to start is the Moselle and Rhine River … Numerous larger and smaller tributary rivers bear the name of the Rhine or equivalent in various Romansh idioms like Rein or Ragn. In some places, there are large compensation pools, for example, the huge Bassin de compensation de Plobsheim in Alsace. Meltwater, adding to the ocean and land subsidence, drowned the former coasts of Europe transgressionally. [18] Tulla is considered to have domesticated the Upper Rhine, domestication that served goals such as reducing stagnant bogs that fostered waterborne diseases, making regions more habitable for human settlement, and reduce high frequency of flooded water. The delta is delimited in the west by the Alter Rhein ("Old Rhine") and in the east by a modern canalized section. Near Koblenz in the canton of Aargau, the Aare joins the Rhine. Between about AD 14 and 180, the assignment of legions was as follows: for the army of Germania Inferior, two legions at Vetera (Xanten), I Germanica and XX Valeria (Pannonian troops); two legions at oppidum Ubiorum ("town of the Ubii"), which was renamed to Colonia Agrippina, descending to Cologne, V Alaudae, a Celtic legion recruited from Gallia Narbonensis and XXI, possibly a Galatian legion from the other side of the empire. This also became the subject of a film, The Bridge at Remagen. This caused the Rhine's course to be diverted through the English Channel. Can you pick the countries through which the Rhine river flows? Major tributaries in this section are the Lahn and the Moselle. Over the past 6000 years, approximately 80 avulsions have occurred. Cruising down the multinational waterway of the Rhine with Avalon, you can traverse five countries– Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, France and Austria – exploring picture-perfect towns of bucket-list destinations like Basel, Strasbourg, Cologne, Bonn, Düsseldorf, Amsterdam and Rotterdam along the way. The rate of erosion equaled the uplift in the region, such that the river was left at about its original level while the surrounding lands raised. Experience the allure of France’s Alsace region in its welcoming capital, Strasbourg, and its priceless gem, Riquewihr. Here the High Rhine ends. Since the Rhine contributes most of the water, the shorter term Rhine Delta is commonly used. Lively and romantic, the medieval town of Miltenberg on the Main River … Discover 6 destinations in 4 countries on the Adventures by Disney Rhine River Cruise! 2002. The Upper Rhine region was changed significantly by a Rhine straightening program in the 19th Century. The most important tributaries in this area are the Ill below of Strasbourg, the Neckar in Mannheim and the Main across from Mainz. As it approaches the Dutch border, the Rhine has an annual mean discharge of 2,290 m3/s (81,000 cu ft/s) and an average width of 400 m (1,300 ft). Previously, the two lakes formed a single lake, as the name still suggests. This map was created by a user. For other uses, see. Here the Rhine flows through the largest conurbation in Germany, the Rhine-Ruhr region. Near Sargans a natural dam, only a few metres high, prevents it from flowing into the open Seeztal valley and then through Lake Walen and Lake Zurich into the Aare. Due to the cooperation of the Rhine-bordering countries within the ICPR, not only the water quality of the Rhine but also its ecological state has further improved. Since then, during glacial times, the river mouth was located offshore of Brest, France and rivers, like the River Thames and the Seine, became tributaries to the Rhine. The mouth of the Rhine into Lake Constance forms an inland delta. The natural Rhine originally branched into at least two arms and formed small islands by precipitating sediments. Among the largest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam, Strasbourg and Basel. The hydrography of the current delta is characterized by the delta's main arms, disconnected arms (Hollandse IJssel, Linge, Vecht, etc.) In northwest Europe, it saw two very cold phases, peaking around 70,000 BP and around 29,000–24,000 BP. They join the Rhine near Koblenz, for the right and left respectively. [note 1]. The Upper Rhine had been part of the areal of the late Hallstatt culture since the 6th century BC, and by the 1st century BC, the areal of the La Tène culture covered almost its entire length, forming a contact zone with the Jastorf culture, i.e. Highlights of the Rhine River A Rhine River cruise takes you into the heart of Middle Europe, where stately castles, fairytale villages and cultural centers have long been witnesses to history. It contributes 70 m3/s (2,500 cu ft/s) to the Rhine. After this number was placed into the authoritative Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, it became generally accepted and found its way into numerous textbooks and official publications. River: Rhine. Depending on the water level, this flow of the Rhine water is clearly visible along the entire length of the lake. Learn how to create your own. 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